Two Classifications of Observations
Qualitative observations are just observations which do not include numbers. For instance, I could observe that my cup of coffee is hot. Quantitative observations are just observations which do include numbers (and units, if necessary). For instance, if I put a thermometer in my cup of coffee, I can observe that the temperature of my coffee is 115 degrees Fahrenheit. This is a quantitative observation because it uses numbers. 

Scientific observation can be broken up into two categories: qualitative observations and quantitative observations.